1.
The highest priority in an emergency situation is:
A.
obtaining water.
B.
obtaining food.
C.
maintaining a positive mental attitude.
D.
signaling for help.


2.
Water is a higher priority in an emergency than:
A.
food.
B.
body shelter.
C.
rest.
D.
positive mental attitude.


3.
The necessities of life should be prioritized in an emergency in terms of:
A.
their expense
B.
length of time a person can live without each item.
C.
their availability in an emergency.
D.
their nutritional value.


4.
Energy conservation and waste removal are two needs satisfied by:
A.
water
B.
positive mental attitude.
C.
rest.
D.
signals.


5.
Select the answer that best reflects the priorities of life in terms of their importance.
A.
food, water, rest
B.
oxygen, positive mental attitude, water
C.
water, food, body shelter
D.
positive mental attitude, body shelter, rest, food


6.
You and another day hiker have lost your bearings on an afternoon's walk on a backcountry trail. To your current regret, both of you neglected to bring the essentials and failed to stop when you realized that you were uncertain of your exact position. Night is falling and temperatures will drop quickly. In terms of survival, what is your HIGHEST priority?
A.
obtaining food
B.
obtaining water
C.
erecting a shelter
D.
signaling for help


7.
In terms of survival, what is your LOWEST priority?
A.
obtaining food
B.
obtaining water
C.
erecting a shelter
D.
signaling for help


8.
The stage of the human response to a life-threatening situation in which muscles tighten, sweat glands constrict, the pulse quickens, and adrenaline begins to flow is called:
A.
alarm.
B.
reaction.
C.
response and options.
D.
rest.


9.
The sequence in which the different stages occur in response to a life-threatening situation is:
A.
reaction, alarm, response and options, rest.
B.
rest, alarm, response and options, reaction.
C.
alarm, reaction, response and options, rest.
D.
rest, reaction, alarm, response and options.


10.
The stage of behavior that occurs in response to a life-threatening situation and is most commonly recognized as the “fight or flight” syndrome is:
A.
response and options.
B.
rest.
C.
reaction.
D.
alarm.


11.
You and your area search dog are searching for victims in the debris field of a recent alpine winter avalanche. You and the dog are sharply focused when you hear a sharp, reverberating “crack” on the mountain above you and feel the rumble of sliding snow. The first stage of your initial response to this life-threatening situation is:
A.
rest.
B.
anxiety.
C.
alarm.
D.
rest.


12.
Relief is the only thing to sweep over you as you and your dog watch the avalanche roar harmlessly past you and your colleagues to stop in the valley below. All of you were able to maneuver clear of the slide's path. The excitement of the moment combines with your earlier exertions to temporarily drain you of your energy. Your knees feel so weak that you sit in the snow to gather yourself back together. The stage of a life-threatening situation into which you have now entered is:
A.
anxiety.
B.
rest.
C.
alarm.
D.
response.


13.
The surroundings and patterns of behavior in which the average person customarily operates is referred to as:
A.
defensive living.
B.
comfort zone.
C.
functional comfort.
D.
personal preparedness.


14.
A searcher placed outside of his or her “comfort zone” in an emergency is likely to experience a sense of:
A.
relaxation and calm.
B.
stress and anxiety.
C.
strong self-confidence.
D.
anger and frustration.


15.
The prepared searcher seeks to ________ his or her personal comfort zone through __________________.
A.
expand/study
B.
shrink/study and review
C.
expand/self-discipline and practice
D.
shrink/physical training


16.
A practice that is LEAST likely to result in an increased comfort zone is:
A.
carefully adhering to cultivated routines.
B.
trying new or different experiences.
C.
experiencing high levels of stress.
D.
resolving challenging situations.


17.
Means of controlling fear include:
A.
affirmative self-talk.
B.
gathering as much information as possible.
C.
having a number of options or contingencies in your plan.
D.
all of the above.


18.
Which of the following is NOT a means to help control fear?
A.
defining fears and recognizing them
B.
practicing good leadership skills
C.
involving others in complex tasks
D.
avoiding the fear mechanism


19.
All of following are means to control fear EXCEPT:
A.
learning quick, logical decision-making skills.
B.
use of spiritual faith.
C.
removal of yourself physically and mentally from the situation.
D.
talking positively to yourself about your actions in the situation.


20.
In the survival situation plan, the “O” stands for:
A.
sizing up the situation through direct Observation.
B.
developing Opportunities for your response.
C.
identification of Obvious drawbacks to your plan.
D.
Overhaul your equipment for an emergency response.


21.
The mnemonic ____________ represents a means to find answers in an emergency.
A.
“TOPS”
B.
“POTS”
C.
“STOP”
D.
“POST”


22.
The “S” in the mnemonic for the survival situation plan stands for:
A.
“Study”
B.
“Service”
C.
“Supply”
D.
“Stop”


23.
The correct order in which terms appear in the mnemonic taught as a means to find answers in an emergency is:
A.
Plan/Observe/Stand by/Think
B.
Stop/Think/Observe/Plan
C.
Think/Observe/Plan/Stand by
D.
Plan/Observe/Think/Stop


24.
“Positive mental attitude” may be referred to as:
A.
“Will to live.”
B.
“Keeping your head on your shoulders.”
C.
“Self-knowledge.”
D.
“Self-reliance.”


25.
“Will to live” and “whole person concept” are the two areas of the concept of:
A.
positive mental attitude.
B.
emergency management.
C.
search management.
D.
adaptive lifestyle.


26.
The “whole person concept” is defined as:
A.
a school of core body fitness training.
B.
a holistic philosophy of mental fitness.
C.
the inter-relationship between mental and physical body processes.
D.
a concept involving search management.


27.
Two searchers have become separated from their crews at different times but under identical circumstances: limited food, limited water, darkness, and an approaching blizzard. One is very pessimistic about his chances of making it through the night. He is unable to gather his thoughts and create a plan for self-preservation. The second repeatedly tells himself, “I know I can beat this…I know I can beat this…I KNOW I can beat this!” He keeps a clear head and manages to put together a survival plan. Based on what you have read here, the thing that is MOST likely to contribute to the SECOND searcher's survival is:
A.
better equipment.
B.
positive mental attitude.
C.
experience in alpine survival.
D.
prior planning.


28.
Nearly all survival situations end within:
A.
12 hours.
B.
48 hours.
C.
72 hours.
D.
1 week.


29.
What percentage of successful survival experiences last over 3 days?
A.
31%-40%
B.
21%-30%
C.
5%-10%
D.
less than 5%


30.
You and a team member are caught out on a mission in the beginning of a driving rain and with an immobilized patient. You and the other searcher gather together your materials: parachute cord, dead tree limbs, a plastic tarp, some fresh tree boughs, and a heavy garbage bag. He proposes constructing a lean-to with the fresh tree boughs plus some more that you and he will cut. You recommend instead that the two of you construct something with the tarp. Why?
A.
His plan involves too much material, violating the consideration of minimizing resource use.
B.
The consideration of using a small and simple shelter is violated.
C.
It is difficult to build a truly weatherproof shelter from natural materials.
D.
The plan violates the tenets of the Leave No Trace philosophy.


31.
You and another day hiker are stranded in the desert on a hot spring afternoon, having climbed out of a slot canyon to avoid a flash flood. The other hiker sets about gathering sticks and rocks to build a shelter. You decide instead take cover in the shadows beneath a nearby rock overhang spacious enough for you both. You ask the other hiker to stop what he or she is doing because:
A.
taking shelter is a waste of time. Flash floods don't last for more than a few hours.
B.
the rock overhang gives you a shelter that takes best advantage of usable materials, takes no time or effort to build, and minimizes your fluid loss through sweating.
C.
finding shelter material in the desert can be too great a challenge.
D.
disturbing rocks in the desert exposes him or her to the risk of being bitten by a snake.


32.
You are improvising a shelter in a rocky forest on a chilly autumn night. You have used your tarp, two tree limbs, and lengths of parachute line to make a simple, low “pup”or tarp-tent. Your shelter “floor” is a quarter-acre sized piece of flat granite that makes up the forest floor. Standing back to admire your work, you realize that it needs a few more touches. You empty your pack at the shelter entrance. Next, you fill the pack with dry leaves. You pour these leaves into the shelter and spread them into a thick mat. You then spread out your empty pack and some of its larger contents (extra plastic, poncho, etc.) into a pallet on top of the leaves. Now satisfied, you crawl into the shelter for a restful sleep. Why did you do what you did with the leaves and pack?
A.
The leaves and pack contents made for a softer, spongier bed.
B.
Keeping the pack contents inside protected them from theft by raccoons.
C.
Spreading the pack contents around makes them more accessible in an emergency.
D.
The leaves and pack contents create an insulation layer.


33.
With which means of water purification can you use the water's odor or flavor to gauge if the purification is likely effective?
A.
iodine
B.
hypochlorite (bleach)
C.
purification tablets
D.
charcoal filtration


34.
Which means of water purification calls for different amounts of purification for clear or cloudy water, and uses a potent poison?
A.
iodine
B.
hypochlorite
C.
boiling
D.
charcoal filtration


35.
You've drunk all the water in your pack on a hot summer backcountry search. Your crew finds a small stream. You dig through your pack only to find that your water purification tablets are missingyou didn't replace the ones you used on last week's overnight hike. Your pack has a number of other things, though. Which would be the best for water purification?
A.
biodegradable soap
B.
packets of salt
C.
rubbing alcohol
D.
bottle of iodine crystals


36.
The least often occurring color in a natural environment is:
A.
blaze orange.
B.
safety yellow.
C.
royal blue.
D.
arctic white.


37.
The optimal length-to-width ratio of ground letters or signals made to attract aerial searchers is:
A.
1:1.
B.
3:1.
C.
6:1.
D.
9:1.


38.
A means of improving the visibility of a signal is:
A.
adding motion to the signal.
B.
locating it in close proximity to terrain or vegetation that is the same color as the signal.
C.
aligning it so that shadows are cast by it.
D.
both A and C.


39.
You're explaining to a newer crew member exactly how to construct a spot for human waste disposal in the field. How deep do you tell him or her to dig it?
A.
around an inch deep, or just in the “duff” layer of leaves and needles
B.
around 4 inches deep, or well within the organic layer of soil
C.
around 6 inches deep, but no deeper than the organic layer of soil
D.
around 9 inches deep, or down into the mineral layer of soil


40.
Another crew member asks where to locate a temporary spot for human waste disposal in the field. Where do you tell him or her to do so?
A.
in a spot that has a great deal of foot traffic and is more than 50 feet from camp
B.
in a spot that is around 100 feet from the trail and unlikely to have other people to pass through
C.
in a spot within 50 feet of a water source to allow for personal hygiene needs
D.
in a spot that is at least 200 feet from the campsite and water sources, with little traffic


41.
Your crew is in the field at the site of a crashed plane. Your crew is to secure the area overnight until investigators arrive. You, as crew leader, are giving your three-member crew some instructions for human waste disposal. You tell them to:
A.
dig three individual cat-holes so as to minimize impact at any one place.
B.
dig a single cat-hole for the crew so as to minimize impact over a wider area.
C.
dig a “trench” latrine to accommodate your entire crew for the entire stay.
D.
dig a new “trench” latrine for each day your crew is there.


42.
At a “trench” latrine, each user should:
A.
leave behind the shovel to minimize the amount of weight carried by the crew.
B.
leave behind the shovel in order to cover the waste with dirt.
C.
leave behind the crew's roll of toilet paper for community use.
D.
leave behind the crew's roll of toilet paper to minimize waste production.


43.
Articles of waste such as leftover food and empty food wrappers in the field should be disposed of by:
A.
burning.
B.
burying.
C.
concealing in a crevice or a boulder field.
D.
packing them out and disposing of them properly.


44.
The feet should be bathed/rinsed/soaked only:
A.
morning and evening.
B.
at rest breaks.
C.
at lunchtime.
D.
at the end of the day.


45.
Water used for brushing your teeth or gargling:
A.
can be taken directly from the body of water.
B.
should be purified just as your drinking water is.
C.
can be spit back into the body of water.
D.
should be re-purified before disposal.


46.
Bathing should be done in:
A.
slow-moving bodies of water for sake of bather safety.
B.
fast-moving bodies of water to carry away suds and gray water.
C.
a spot away from the water source, and with biodegradable soap.
D.
a spot in which the rinse or “gray” water can disposed of in a cat-hole, and with a small quantity of the chemical anti-bacterial detergents from the first aid kit.



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